The United States acquired almost all the area of New Mexico from Mexico in 1848. The United States acquired a small area, comprising the southwestern corner of New Mexico, from Mexico in 1853 as part of the Gadsden Purchase. New Mexico Territory was organized from the acquired area December 13, 1850, and included most of present-day Arizona and New Mexico as well as parts of Colorado and Nevada. The territory was reduced with the organization of Colorado Territory in 1861 and Arizona Territory in 1863 to assume generally the same boundary as the present state.
Census data are available for New Mexico beginning with the 1850 census. The 1850 census population is for the entire New Mexico Territory, including areas not in present-day New Mexico. For an explanation of the revision to the 1860 population of New Mexico, see Richard L. Forstall, Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996, page 110.
Data for the legally established state of New Mexico are available beginning with the 1920 census.
Counties & County Equivalents
There are 33 counties in New Mexico. The counties are functioning governmental units, each governed by a board of commissioners.
There are 130 county subdivisions in New Mexico. They are all census county divisions (CCDs), which are delineated for statistical purposes, have no legal function, and are not governmental units. CCDs were first established in New Mexico for the 1960 census. Prior to 1960, the minor civil divisions used in the census were election precincts.
Places (Incorporated Cities, Towns & Census Designated Places (CDPs))
New Mexico has 443 places; 102 incorporated places and 341 census designated places (CDPs). The incorporated places consist of 35 cities, 19 towns, and 48 villages. The minimum population required for incorporation is 150.
Alphabetical List of Cities, Towns, CDPs and Other Populated Places
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q, R | S | T | U, V | W, X, Y, Z
New Mexico Civil Features
New Mexico Civil Features: Political Subdivisions, Native Areas, Land Grants, etc. - sorted by Census Class Codes.
Metropolitan and Micropolitan Stastical Areas
There are 4 Metropolitan and 14 Micropolitan Statistical Areas in New Mexico. NM Metopolitan & Micropolitan Areas
New Mexico ZIP Code Tabulation Areas
There are 372 ZIP Code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). View New Mexico ZIP Codes and ZIP Code Maps.
New Mexico has 89 unified school districts. View New Mexico Public and Private Schools.
For the 111th Congress (January 2009-January 2011), New Mexico had three congressional districts. For the 113th Congress (January 2013-January 2015), New Mexico continues to have three congressional districts as a result of reapportionment based on the 2010 Census. View Map of New Mexico Congressional Districts.
State Legislative Districts
There are 42 state senate districts and 70 state house districts in New Mexico.
American Indian Areas
New Mexico has 23 federally recognized American Indian reservations; 11 with off-reservation trust lands. There are also two joint-use areas.